Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens health security and the economy worldwide. AMR bacteria can spread across humans, animals, food webs and the environment. Excessive use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals has been recognised as one of the main drivers of the emergence of resistant bacteria. This study aims to quantify and identify patterns of antimicrobial consumption in food-producing animals in Thailand in a three-year period (2017–2019). Milligrams of active ingredient from total volume of imported and locally manufactured products minus exports were obtained from Thai FDA. Annual population production of food-producing animals in 2017, 2018 and 2019 was compiled and validated through cooperation between the Department of Livestock Development (DLD), Department of Fisheries (DOF). The total amount of antimicrobial consumption for food-producing animals decreased 49.0% over the three-year period from 658.7 mg/PCUThailand in 2017 to 336.3 mg/PCUThailand in 2019. In 2017, the most common antimicrobials used was macrolides which was replaced by aminopenicillins and pleuromutilins in 2019, while tetracyclines was consistently common over the three-year period. Consumption of the WHO Critically Important Antimicrobials (CIA) group declined significantly over this period, from 259.0 in 2017 to 193.2 mg/PCUThailand in 2019 (a 25.4% reduction). Findings from this study were in line with national policies which curtails prudent use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals. The government should maintain the decreasing trend of consumption, in particular of the CIA category. Improving information systems which captures consumption by specific species contributes to precision of interventions to minimise prudent use in each species.